Author: Mushroom References

Mycelial extract of phellinus linteus induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells and elevation of nitric oxide in raw 264.7 macrophage cells

“Treatment of PLME to A549 cells resulted in the growth inhibition, morphological change and induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay. We found that PLME stimulated a dose-dependent increase in NO production.” ABSTRACT: In the present study, in order to investigate the anti-proliferative phenomenon of PLME, the effects …

Read More Mycelial extract of phellinus linteus induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells and elevation of nitric oxide in raw 264.7 macrophage cells

Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

“Our experiments indicated that POP reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia levels, improves insulin resistance, and increases glycogen storage by activating GSK3 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation.” ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of total polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus on type 2 diabetes. Rats were administered with high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to induce …

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Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71

“GFP1 was tested for its anti-EV71 activity in cultured cells, which showed that EV71 viral replication was blocked and viral VP1 protein expression and genomic RNA synthesis were suppressed.” ABSTRACT: A novel heteropolysaccharide from Grifola frondosa mycelia was extracted and purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and …

Read More Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71

Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of lentinus tigrinus and lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture

“Results revealed that L. tigrinus efficiently grew on rice bran decoction which significantly recorded the highest yield of mycelia (11.53 g), volume loss of the medium (24.33 ml), radical scavenging activity (18.94%) and total phenolics (26.59 mg AAE/g sample).” ABSTRACT: With the increasing demand of functional foods with antioxidant properties, it is necessary to establish …

Read More Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of lentinus tigrinus and lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture

Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

“Our experiments indicated that POP reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia levels, improves insulin resistance, and increases glycogen storage by activating GSK3 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation.” ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of total polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus on type 2 diabetes. Rats were administered with high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. The rats were …

Read More Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells (caco-2)

“Both fractions 2 and 3 inhibited Caco-2 cells in a dose dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: An ethanolic extraction of Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal mushroom, was fractioned into four extracts by flash chromatography. Only fraction 2 and 3 contained triterpenoids. Fraction 2 was less polar and contained ganoderic acids _, A, B, C2, C6, D, G, H, …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells (caco-2)

Hispolon from Phellinus linteus possesses mediate caspases activation and induces human nasopharyngeal carcinomas cells apoptosis through ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway

“The results showed that hispolon significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HONE-1 and NP-039 cell lines. Furthermore, hispolon induced apoptosis through caspases-3, -8, and -9 activations and PARP cleavage in dose- and time-dependent manner in HONE-1 and NP-039 cells. Moreover, hispolon also showed that increase phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 in dose- and time-dependent …

Read More Hispolon from Phellinus linteus possesses mediate caspases activation and induces human nasopharyngeal carcinomas cells apoptosis through ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway

Structural characterization and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide produced by Hirsutella sinensis.

“The tumor inhibition ratio on H22 cell was 79.04% at 100μg/mL of HSP-III.” ABSTRACT: HSP-III, a novel homogeneous polysaccharide with 513.89kDa molecular weight, was fractionated from submerged cultures of Hirsutella sinensis by Sevag and chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The total sugar content of HSP-III was amounted to 89.87%. Based on the results of high …

Read More Structural characterization and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide produced by Hirsutella sinensis.

Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

“G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.” ABSTRACT: Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained …

Read More Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of hericium caput-medusae (bull.:Fr.) Pers. On performance, gut microflora, and cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens.

“The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (Po0.001) linearly and quadratically, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (linear and quadratic, Po0.001) with increasing dietary HFCP levels.” ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) on …

Read More Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of hericium caput-medusae (bull.:Fr.) Pers. On performance, gut microflora, and cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens.

Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill

“Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP [Agaricus blaze​i Murrill ​​polysaccharides] with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, radical scavenging and Fe2+-chelating.” Wu, S., Li, F., Jia, S., Ren, H., Gong, G., Wang, Y., & Lv, Z. …

Read More Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill

Beyond Beta-Glucans

Beyond Beta-Glucans: Evolutions in Mushroom Science A Critical Examination of the NAMMEX White Paper, “Beta-glucans Guaranteed in Medicinal Mushroom Extracts: Redefining Medicinal Mushrooms: A new scientific screening program for active compounds” by Paul Stamets, D.Sc. (Hon.) October 15, 2015 Requires Adobe’s Acrobat Reader

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Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor [Tv] in women with breast cancer

“One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the overall difference between dosage groups over the treatment period (2–4–6 weeks). It showed the statistically significant increase in the CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. P = 0.0003…. In the dose escalation study, Tv resulted in an earlier recovery of lymphocyte counts” after radiation therapy, nearly doubling, with a significance …

Read More Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor [Tv] in women with breast cancer

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

“Chaga supplementation resulted in a 54.9% (p < 0.001) reduction of H2O2 induced DNA damage within the patient group and 34.9% (p < 0.001) within the control group. Lymphocytes from Crohn’s disease (CD) patients had a greater basic DNA damage than Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients (p < 0.001). Conclusively, Chaga extract reduces oxidative stress in …

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Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities

“Seven compounds (3, 9, 10, 12, 18-20) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A549, HT29, Hela or L1210 tumor cell lines.” ABSTRACT: Three new lanostane-type triterpenes, inonotusanes A-C (1-3), and a new naturally occurring one, 3β-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinorlanosta-8,22E-dien-24-oic acid (4), together with sixteen known triterpenoids (5-20), including 13 lanostane derivatives, 2 lupanes and 1 oleanane-type triterpene were isolated from …

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Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes

“L. edodes reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manners in carcinoma cells but had no effect in non-tumorigenic cells.” ABSTRACT: The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom mycelia, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells …

Read More Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes

Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

“The present study describes the isolation of two new naturally occurring metabolites from an anti-TB mycelial culture extract (EtOH) of F. officinalis…” ABSTRACT: An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4- phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The …

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Antiviral Activity From Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Active Constituents. U.S. Patent Pending

“The present invention offers a unique approach to viral control by utilizing molecular constituents, more specifically discrete active pharmacological ingredients, resident within aqueous-ethanol extracts from the living mycelium of Antrodia, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Inonotus, Schizophyllum, Phellinus, Piptoporus, Trametes and other taxa in the Polyporaceae…” EXCERPT: The present invention offers a unique approach to viral control …

Read More Antiviral Activity From Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Active Constituents. U.S. Patent Pending

Potentiation of cell-mediated host defense using fruitbodies and mycelia of medicinal mushrooms

“Despite dramatic differences in beta glucan and arabinoxylane contents between mushrooms and their mycelium-on-grain, immune function is similarly enhanced. These results suggest that immune response is further augmented when multiple mushrooms are used in concert. Synergistic combinations of mushroom species appear to activate collective subfields of receptor sites, eliciting a wide range of positive responses …

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Compositions Comprising Hypsizygus ulmarius Extract. U.S. Patent 7575764

“Disclosed are topical compositions comprising extracts of Hypsizygus ulmarius in amounts that are effective to influence LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and/or IL-1β mediated adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.”  ABSTRACT: Disclosed are topical compositions comprising extracts of Hypsizygus ulmarius in amounts that are effective to influence LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and/or IL-1β mediated adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The Hypsizygus ulmarius extract …

Read More Compositions Comprising Hypsizygus ulmarius Extract. U.S. Patent 7575764

Antiviral and antibacterial activity from medicinal mushrooms. U.S. Patent 8765138

“Compounds having unique antiviral and antibacterial properties are prepared from medicinal mushroom mycelium, extracts and derivatives…and are useful in preventing and treating viruses including Poxyiridae and Orthopox viruses, flu viruses including bird flu (H5N1), SARS and Hepatitis C (HCV), as well as infections from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureas and Escherichia coli.” ABSTRACT: Compounds having unique …

Read More Antiviral and antibacterial activity from medicinal mushrooms. U.S. Patent 8765138

Medicinal Mushrooms from Old-Growth Forests May Counter Smallpox and Similar Viruses

“In fact, of more than 200,000 samples submitted over several years, only a handful are slated for animal testing each year.  In the past year, approximately ten samples showed activity warranting approval for animal testing; of these, two are from strains of Agarikon discovered by Stamets. Moreover, Mr. Stamets’ samples are the only natural products …

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Protein-Bound Polysaccharides. U.S. Patent 4271151

“Disclosed in this invention are protein-bound polysaccharides having antitumor activities. The polysaccharides have a molecular weight within a specified range and present a pattern of color reaction peculiar to the saccharides as well a color of pattern reaction characteristic of amino acids and peptide bonds….The protein bound polysaccharides can be obtained by the extraction of …

Read More Protein-Bound Polysaccharides. U.S. Patent 4271151

Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

“The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and …

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TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

“PSK activated human NK cells to produce IFN-γ and to lyse K562 target cells. PSK also enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Both direct and IL-12-dependent indirect effects seem to be involved in the effect of PSK on NK cells.” [from mycelium] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) …

Read More TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells

“Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumour cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA …

Read More The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells

Simultaneous increase of mycelia biomass and intracellular polysaccharide from Fomes fomentarius and its biological function of gastric cancer intervention

“Chen et al. (2011) studied that ethanol extract of mycelial biomass and intracellular polysaccharide of Fomes fomentarius play crucial roles in gastric cancer intervention. Both the extracts exhibit anti-proliferative effect on human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 in a dose-dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: In this work, the effects of submerged culture conditions and nutritional …

Read More Simultaneous increase of mycelia biomass and intracellular polysaccharide from Fomes fomentarius and its biological function of gastric cancer intervention

Progress of Research on Inonotus obliquus

“Antiplatelet Aggregative Action: It was reported that water and ethanol extracts from mycelium or fruiting bodies in 55 kinds of mushrooms were tested for platelet aggregation inhibitory activities. The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of Inonotus obliquus ASI 74006 were extracted with ethanol at 80 ℃ for 12 h. The …

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Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells

“Ganoderic acid T (GA-T), which is a lanostane triterpenoid purified from methanol extract of G. lucidum mycelia, was found to exert cytotoxicity on various human carcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, while it was less toxic to normal human cell lines.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb containing many bioactive …

Read More Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells