Author: Mushroom References

Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest

“In this study, we report that a triterpene-enriched fraction from mycelia of G. lucidum inhibits growth of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells while exerts little effect on a normal human liver cell line.”  ABSTRACT: The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been used in the Orient for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including …

Read More Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest

Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-κB

“The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of dried mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum produced by submerged cultivation on the enhancement of innate immune response. We found that Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (0.2–1.6 mg/ml) stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 production after 8 h treatment in human whole blood.”  ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom in …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-κB

Orally administered mycelia culture of Phellinus linteus exhibits antitumor effects in hepatoma cell-bearing mice

“The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of a mycelial culture from Phellinus linteus PL-7 (MCPL-7) and to elucidate its potential mechanism in vivo. MCPL-7 administration induced a significant reduction in tumor size and was associated with a significant increase in T cell numbers; IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion; NK cell …

Read More Orally administered mycelia culture of Phellinus linteus exhibits antitumor effects in hepatoma cell-bearing mice

Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy

“These findings provide evidences that GL-M [Ganoderma lucidum mycelium] has immunomodulating effects on human immune cells and therefore can be used as a natural adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy with DCs.”  ABSTRACT: Objectives: Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in the oriental community, with more than 30% of pediatric cancer …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

“CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity.”  ABSTRACT: AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from …

Read More In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells

“In the present study, the effects of ethanol extracts of G. lucidum (EGL) on the growth of an AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated. We found that EGL treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent significant decrease in the viability of AGS cells. This decreased viability was caused by apoptotic cell death, with …

Read More Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells

Effect of Polysaccharides and 70% Ethanol Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms on Growth of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells

“A 70% ethanol extract of mushrooms markedly inhibited the cell growth of LNCaP and PC-3 cells, and the effect was greater than the above polysaccharides. These results showed that the polysaccharides and 70% ethanol extract of mushrooms have growth-inhibitory activity in LNCaP and PC-3 cells.” ABSTRACT: To find anticancer compounds in medicinal mushrooms (MM), we …

Read More Effect of Polysaccharides and 70% Ethanol Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms on Growth of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells

Cancer prevention and treatment by Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties

“Initial extraction of triterpenoids from Ganoderma is usually by organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, and chloroform, and the extracts can be further purified according to different methods, depending on whether they contain acidic or nonacidic triterpenoids.”  ABSTRACT: Ganoderma, highly ranked in Oriental traditional medicine, has been used as a remedy for many types of …

Read More Cancer prevention and treatment by Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus

“Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs).” ABSTRACT: The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and …

Read More Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus

Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

“Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells. In order to evaluate the effect of edible mushrooms on the growth of breast and colon cancer cells, we prepared methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. As seen in Fig. 2A, P. ostreatus suppressed the …

Read More Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

Studies on Ganoderma lucidum

“The growth of mycelia in complete media was found much better than those in Czapek solution alone or CM-cellulose has significant effect on the growth of G. lucidum when supplemented to Czapek solution.”  ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst NTU G001, the wood rotting fungus and traditional Chinese medicine, was cultured in liquid media under various …

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Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

“Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB) [mycelium], grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)”  ABSTRACT: Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB), grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Peroxidation products in the liver were decreased to 10% by EPB. Catalase and …

Read More Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer heterogeneity in Ganoderma species.

“The clone sequences were analyzed along with other sequences from Ganoderma retrieved from GenBank. The results show that sequence variation within strains varies considerably with species and the heterogeneity may occur in the 3 parts (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ITS region.”  ABSTRACT: Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer (ITS) heterogeneity is first reported from Ganoderma, …

Read More Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer heterogeneity in Ganoderma species.

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different Ganoderma lucidum extracts

“The antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts (40μg/ml) of Ganoderma lucidum was tested against six species of bacteria…Acetone extract exhibited maximum antibacterial activity…”  ABSTRACT: Bioproducts of Mushroom have multi beneficial effects for human welfare. Medicinal mushrooms are widely used as traditional medicinal ingredients for the treatment of various diseases and related health problems. Most of …

Read More Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different Ganoderma lucidum extracts

Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract for Patients Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study

“Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (L.E.M.) is extensively utilized as an herbal medicine… [and] improves the QOL and immune function of patients undergoing chemotherapy.” ABSTRACT: Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (L.E.M.) is extensively utilized as an herbal medicine. However, its safety and effectiveness have not yet been scientifically verified. In this study, we investigated its safety and …

Read More Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract for Patients Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study

Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

“High-dose PSP [Polysaccharopeptide…the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor] significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma”  ABSTRACT: The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies …

Read More Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Bacillus Calmette Guérin on Premalignant Urothelial HUC-PC Cells and Its Regulation on Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion

“…ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum… [suggests]…potential implications of GL to supplement the BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer, for better efficacy and reducing side effects.”  ABSTRACT: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is conventionally used as an adjuvant immunotherapy to reduce the recurrence of bladder cancer. To address the issues of efficacy and safety, an ethanol extract of Ganoderma …

Read More Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Bacillus Calmette Guérin on Premalignant Urothelial HUC-PC Cells and Its Regulation on Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion

Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review

“The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention.”  ABSTRACT: From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of …

Read More Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review

Mushroom Polysaccharide protects Radiation Induced Intestinal Damage in Mice

“The in vivo radioprotective effect of a polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, against radiation (RT) induced intestinal damage was investigated…PS can be developed to an effective natural radioprotector without any side effects, after further studies.”  ABSTRACT: The in vivo radioprotective effect of a polysaccharide (PS) isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, against …

Read More Mushroom Polysaccharide protects Radiation Induced Intestinal Damage in Mice

Anti-inflammatory effect of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-activated macrophages

“…PBR [Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice] ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis such as shortening of colon length and improved the disease activity index score.”  ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance and aim of the study: Phellinus linteus is a herb used in traditional Asian medicine to treat stomachache, inflammation, and tumors. Recent studies show that …

Read More Anti-inflammatory effect of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice on dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and LPS-activated macrophages

Enhancement of Wheat Grain Antioxidant Activity by Solid State Fermentation with Grifola spp.

“…solid state fermentation [SSF] of wheat grains with mycelia of those Grifola spp. was used to obtain biotransformed wheat grain flour…a valuable food alternative can easily be obtained with wheat grains, that is, by markedly increasing their antioxidant value through SSF with Grifola spp..”  ABSTRACT: Grifola frondosa, Grifola gargal, and Grifola sordulenta are edible and …

Read More Enhancement of Wheat Grain Antioxidant Activity by Solid State Fermentation with Grifola spp.

HPLC Determination of Phenolics and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Two Polypore Mushrooms

“Present study aimed to demonstrate free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activity of ethanolic extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes hirsuta in in vitro conditions…TPC, HPLC studies and the free radical scavenging assays suggest that the two extracts have significant antioxidant potential and proved rich sources of antioxidants.” ABSTRACT: Objective: Present study aimed to demonstrate free radical …

Read More HPLC Determination of Phenolics and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Two Polypore Mushrooms

Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

“This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes…After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress…Daily fungal supplementation consisted of 1335 mg of standardized …

Read More Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

In Vivo and In Vitro Anti-Tumor Effects of Fungal Extracts

“…we aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of some different fungal species against different cancer cell lines. The water or ethanol extracts of Fomitopsis pinicola (F. pinicola), Ganoderma sinense, Fomitopsis officinalis, Polyporus melanopus, and Taiwanofungus camphorates were used to evaluate the anti-cancer activities in various cancer cells…all of the fungi ethanol extracts used in this …

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Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Dang District of Gujarat, India

“…an attempt has been made in this study to examine the antibacterial activity of various extracts of G. lucidum…methanolic extract of G. lucidum showed the strongest antibacterial activity…”  ABSTRACT: G. lucidum has been used for hundreds of years as a health promotion and treatment strategy. The emergence of new infections, drug resistant bacteria, high costs …

Read More Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Dang District of Gujarat, India

Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

“Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract [of Cordyceps militaris]…Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum…The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris …

Read More Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

Concentration variation and molecular characteristics of soluble (1,3;1,6)-ß-D-glucans in submerged cultivation products of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium

“Twelve mycelium samples examined in this study demonstrated the quantitative molecular characteristics of soluble (1,3:1,6)-β-d-Glucans…(1,3:1,6)-β-Glucan was proposed as a putative bioactive marker for immunomodulation because it was the most abundant polysaccharide in G. lucidum mycelium products to stimulate macrophage…cells…”  ABSTRACT: (1,3)-β-d-Glucans with (1,6)-β-d-glucosyl branches are bioactive polysaccharides in fruiting bodies and mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, …

Read More Concentration variation and molecular characteristics of soluble (1,3;1,6)-ß-D-glucans in submerged cultivation products of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium

Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides

“This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in production against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes…Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation of phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially gy Gl-PS…”  ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) …

Read More Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides

Photo morphogenesis and Photo response of the blue-light receptor gene Cmwc-1 in different strains of Cordyceps militaris

“Light is a necessary environmental factor for stroma formation and development of Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus…The results suggest that light was essential for colony pigmentation and could promote conidia production.”  ABSTRACT: Light is a necessary environmental factor for stroma formation and development of Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus. …

Read More Photo morphogenesis and Photo response of the blue-light receptor gene Cmwc-1 in different strains of Cordyceps militaris