Author: Mushroom References

Structure and properties of a (1→3)-ß-D-glucan from ultrasound-degraded exopolysaccharides of a medicinal fungus

“A high molecular weight (MW) exopolysaccharide (EPS) fraction EPS1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of a medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis…and partially degraded by high-intensity ultrasound…suggesting its potential as a moisturizing agent for food and cosmeceutical application.”  ABSTRACT: A high molecular weight (MW) exopolysaccharide (EPS) fraction EPS1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of a …

Read More Structure and properties of a (1→3)-ß-D-glucan from ultrasound-degraded exopolysaccharides of a medicinal fungus

Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology

“This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps sinensis, Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, and Trametes versicolor…For these 5 mushrooms, an abundance of in vitro evidence exists that elucidates the anticancer immunological mechanisms.”  ABSTRACT: This review discusses the immunological roles of 5 major mushrooms in oncology: Agaricus blazei, Cordyceps …

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LED lights increase bioactive substances at low energy costs in culturing fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris

“Cordyceps militaris is widely cultured to produce fruiting bodies for medicinal and health food use. Illumination is an important factor for the growth, quality and production costs…results demonstrated the functions of different wavelength lights on the growth and biosynthesis of bioactive substances and that using the low heat release and energy consumption LED lights to …

Read More LED lights increase bioactive substances at low energy costs in culturing fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris

Increased mycelial biomass production by Lentinula edodes intermittently illuminated by green light emitting diodes

“To study the effect of light on Lentinula edodes (the shiitake mushroom), mycelial cultures were exposed to blue, green, and red fluorescent lights and light-emitting diodes, as well as green laser light.”  ABSTRACT: Fungi possess a range of light receptors to regulate metabolism and differentiation. To study the effect of light on Lentinula edodes (the …

Read More Increased mycelial biomass production by Lentinula edodes intermittently illuminated by green light emitting diodes

Cordycepin Down-Regulates Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR)/HIF-1a through Regulating AMPK/mTORC1 Signaling in GMB-SD Gallbladder Cancer Cells

“…cordycepin, the bioactive compound in genus Cordyceps, induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in cultured gallbladder cancer cells…”  ABSTRACT: Gallbladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the bile duct, with low 5-year survival rate and poor prognosis. Novel effective treatments are urgently needed for the therapy of this disease. Here, we showed that cordycepin, the …

Read More Cordycepin Down-Regulates Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR)/HIF-1a through Regulating AMPK/mTORC1 Signaling in GMB-SD Gallbladder Cancer Cells

Anti-influenza Effect of Cordyceps militaris through Immunomodulation of DBA/2 Mouse Mode

“The immune-modulatory as well as anti-influenza of Cordyceps extract were investigated…Cordyceps extract had an anti-influenza effect that was associated with stable body weight and reduced mortality.” ABSTRACT: The immune-modulatory as well as anti-influenza effects of Cordyceps extract were investigated using a DBA/2 mouse model. Three different concentrations of Cordyceps extract, red ginseng extract, or drinking …

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Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by ergosterol deriviatives from the mycelium of Phellinus linteus

“Numerous bioactive substances have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of P. linteus, such as polysaccharides, sterols, proteoglycans, cyclophellitol, furan derivatives, hispidin and hispolon, and their biological activities have been verified in vitro and in vivo.” ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the largest component of the dermal skin layer, and has a fundamental role …

Read More Inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by ergosterol deriviatives from the mycelium of Phellinus linteus

Antioxidative Activities of Wild Macro Fungi Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.

“The present research work was under taken to evaluate antioxidant activity and quantitative determination of phytoconstituents of various solvent extracts of wild macro fungi Ganoderma applanatum…using in vitro models…the total phenolics and flavonoids were high and extracts showed good antioxidant capacity in DPPH radical scavenging assay compared to other in vitro models. The methanol extract …

Read More Antioxidative Activities of Wild Macro Fungi Ganoderma applanatum (Pers.) Pat.

Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization

“The stimulation effect of the six extracts and eight fractions [from Inonotus obliquus] on the four-cytokine production was dose-dependent. Sclerotial polysaccharides were more effective in the four-cytokine production at 150μg/ml while exopolysaccharides and endopolysacchrides showed a much better effect on IL-1β production at 30μg/ml. Purified fractions from exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides were more effective than the …

Read More Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization

Suppression of Tumor Growth by Pleurotus ferulae Ethanol Extract through Induction of Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

“We used ethanol to extract anti-cancer bioactive components enriched with terpenoids from Pleurotus ferulae. We tested the anti-tumour effects of ethanol extracts on the melanoma cell line B16F10, the human gastric cancer cell line BGC 823 and the immortalized human gastric epithelial mucosa cell line GES-1 in vitro and a murine melanoma model in vivo…PFEC …

Read More Suppression of Tumor Growth by Pleurotus ferulae Ethanol Extract through Induction of Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

A Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extracts from Fruit Bodies and Fermented Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

“This study assayed and compared the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of the methanol extracts from fruiting bodies and fermented mycelia of C. militaris, as well as the contents of total phenol, flavonoids, and cordycepin. The results showed that the extracts from fruiting bodies possessed broad antimicrobial activities against all microorganisms tested (both bacteria and …

Read More A Comparative Study of the Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanol Extracts from Fruit Bodies and Fermented Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

Effects of Polysaccharopeptide from Trametes versicolor and amoxicillin on the gut microbiome of healthy volunteers

“Interactions between the microbial flora of the intestine and the human host play a critical role in maintaining intestinal health and in the pathophysiology of a wide variety of disorders such as antibiotic associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile infection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Prebiotics can confer health benefits by beneficial effects on the intestinal microbiome, whereas …

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Trametes versicolor Extract Modifies Human Fecal Microbiota Composition In vitro

“The genera of the human microbiota that are promoted by FOS and other prebiotics are also stimulated by the Trametes versicolor extract, PSP. Thus, Trametes versicolor, a common East Asian botanical, contains putative prebiotic agents that alter human gut microbiota and pH. This prebiotic-like activity may help explain some of the plethora of the health …

Read More Trametes versicolor Extract Modifies Human Fecal Microbiota Composition In vitro

Effect of Extraction Media on Preliminary Characterizations and Antioxidant Activities of Phellinus linteus Polysaccharides

“[Ammonium-oxalate and sodium-hydroxide/sodium-borohydride extracts of Phellinus linteus mycelium] had better antioxidant activities [than hot water extracts] and could thus be developed as potential natural antioxidant agents for applications in food additives and biomedical industries.” ABSTRACT: Three partially purified polysaccharides were extracted from Phellinus linteus mycelia using hot water, 1% (NH4)2C2O4, and 1.25M NaOH/0.05% NaBH4, and …

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A Comprehensive Review of the Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity of Triterpenoids from Ganoderma spp.

“The majority of Ganoderma triterpenes exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including antitumor, anti-HIV-1, antihypertensive, antiangiogenic, immunomodulatory, antiandrogenic, antihepatitis B, antioxidant, anticomplement, and antimicrobial activities [10–13].” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have …

Read More A Comprehensive Review of the Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity of Triterpenoids from Ganoderma spp.

Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities

“Bioactive polysaccharides have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum and from the mycelia cultivated in liquid culture. Some polysaccharides have also been isolated from the culture medium of growing mycelium (extracellular polysaccharides).” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been …

Read More Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities

Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43

“G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC. Inhibition of proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in VEGF expression and increase in Cx43 expression in the cancer cells. The extent of immune-reactivity of Cx43 or VEGF in cancer cells were correlated with the concentrations of G. lucidum used for treatment.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43

Cordycepin modulates inflammatory and catabolic gene expression in interleukin-1beta-induced human chondrocytes from advanced-stage osteoarthritis: an in vitro study

“…cordycepin suppressed IL-1β-stimulated GAG release. Gene expressions of catabolic enzymes, including MMP-1, MMP-13, cathepsin K, cathepsin S, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, were decreased by cordycepin in a dose-dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: Cordycepin is widely used as for its various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-an-giogenesis, anti-aging, anti-tumor and anti-proliferation. However, the precise role of cordycepin on chondrocytes …

Read More Cordycepin modulates inflammatory and catabolic gene expression in interleukin-1beta-induced human chondrocytes from advanced-stage osteoarthritis: an in vitro study

Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture

“All 10 investigated mushroom species inhibited the reproduction of influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47 (H1N1) in MDCK cells reducing the infectious titer by 2.0-6.0 lg ID50. Four species, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fomes fomentarius, Auriporia aurea, and Trametes versicolor, were also determined to be effective against HSV-2 strain BH in RK-13 cells, with similar levels of inhibition as …

Read More Antiviral activity of Basidiomycete mycelia against influenza type A (serotype H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 in cell culture

Apoptotic effect of cordycepin on A549 human lung cancer cell line

“The FCM analysis of cordycepin treated cell showed that apoptosis rate increased with the increase in dosage.” ABSTRACT: Cordycepin, an active ingredient of the insect fungus Cordyceps militaris, is a category of compounds that exhibit significant therapeutic activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cordycepin on cell proliferation, apoptosis …

Read More Apoptotic effect of cordycepin on A549 human lung cancer cell line

Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

“After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose.” ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were …

Read More Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Anti inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways

“GLBR suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and decreased the expression of COX-2, TNF-a, iNOS, IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom with anti-inflammatory potential. In the present study, the aim was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mode of …

Read More Anti inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways

Potent Anticancer Effects of Bioactive Mushroom Extracts (Phellinus linteus) on a Variety of Human Cancer Cells

“PL-ES (100 µg/mL) exhibited potent anticancer activity, resulting in a significant (40-80%) growth reduction in all 10 cancer cells at 72 hours. PL-I-ES (100 µg/mL) was effective on only four cancer cells but its higher concentration at 250 µg/mL led to a significant (25-90%) growth reduction in seven cancer cells.” ABSTRACT: Although several therapeutic options …

Read More Potent Anticancer Effects of Bioactive Mushroom Extracts (Phellinus linteus) on a Variety of Human Cancer Cells

Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

ABSTRACT: For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially …

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Hyperlipidemic and Hypocholesterolic Action of Submerged Cultured Mushrooms

“It has been shown that addition of most of mycelia powders of investigated fungi to hyperlipidemic fodder of rats leads to a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels in the blood.” ABSTRACT: According to WHO, cardiovascular diseases are among the major causes of death on the planet. One of the main risk factors is elevated …

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Anti-inflammatory effects of Cordyceps mycelium (Paecilomyces hepiali, CBG-CS-2) in Raw264.7 murine macrophages

“CBG-CS-2 significantly decreased NO production, iNOS expression, and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: Cordyceps (CS) is a traditional Chinese herb with various biological effects that include immune modulation. CBG-CS-2 is a strain, Paecilomyces hepiali, of the Cordyceps spp. The anti-inflammatory effects of CBG-CS- 2 were investigated. The water-soluble fraction of CBG-CS-2 has high anti-inflammatory …

Read More Anti-inflammatory effects of Cordyceps mycelium (Paecilomyces hepiali, CBG-CS-2) in Raw264.7 murine macrophages

Cytotoxic Activity of Edible Mushrooms extracts against Tumor Cell Lines

“We observed that the extracts of fresh and freeze-dried fruiting bodies had a stronger inhibition effect than extracts from mycelia and broth when extracted by water and methanol.” ABSTRACT: Edible mushrooms are a valuable source of nutritional ingredients and biologically active compounds. The medicinal use of edible mushrooms extracts had advantages over the use of …

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Assessing the immunomodulatory potential of high-molecular-weight extracts from mushrooms; an assay based on THP-1 macrophages

“Zymosan and mushroom polysaccharide extracts lead to a heterogeneous differentiation state of THP-1 monocytes, and these cells secrete low levels of cytokines upon stimulation.” ABSTRACT: Food is a potential source of immunomodulating compounds that may be used to steer immune responses towards a desired status such as reducing inflammatory disorders. However, to identify and characterize …

Read More Assessing the immunomodulatory potential of high-molecular-weight extracts from mushrooms; an assay based on THP-1 macrophages

Mushroom B-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

“For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-y mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF- mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments.” ABSTRACT: The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased …

Read More Mushroom B-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma