Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a common edible mushroom consumed in several Asian countries and considered to be a medicinal mushroom with neuroprotective effects. Erinacine A (EA) is a bioactive compound in Hericium erinaceus mycelium (HEM) that has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the etiology of PD is still unclear, neuroinflammation may play an important role in causing dopaminergic neuron loss, which is a pathological hallmark of PD. However, glial cell activation has a close relationship with neuroinflammation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of EA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glial cell activation and neural damage in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, glial cells, BV-2 microglial cells and CTX TNA2 astrocytes were pretreated with EA and then stimulated with LPS and/or IFN-gamma. The expression of proinflammatory factors in the cells and culture medium was analyzed. In addition, differentiated neuro-2a (N2a) cells were pretreated with EA or HEM and then stimulated with LPS-treated BV-2 conditioned medium (CM). The cell viability and the amount of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were analyzed. In vivo, rats were given EA or HEM by oral gavage prior to injection of LPS into the substantia nigra (SN). Motor coordination of the rats and the expression of proinflammatory mediators in the midbrain were analyzed. EA pretreatment prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production in BV-2 cells and TNF-alpha expression in CTX TNA2 cells. In addition, both EA and HEM pretreatment significantly increased cell viability and TH expression and suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and NF- kappaB in differentiated N2a cells treated with CM. In vivo, both EA and HEM significantly improved motor dysfunction in the rotarod test and the amphetamine-induced rotation test and reduced the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and iNOS in the midbrain of rats intranigrally injected with LPS. The results demonstrate that EA ameliorates LPS-induced neuroinflammation and has neuroprotective properties.
Lee, S. L., Hsu, J. Y., Chen, T. C., Huang, C. C., Wu, T. Y., & Chin, T. Y. (2022). Erinacine A Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Glial Cell Activation to Protect Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammatory Factor-Induced Cell Death In Vitro and In Vivo. Int J Mol Sci, 23(2). doi:10.3390/ijms23020810