CONTEXT: Researchers conducted extensive investigations of hallucinogens in the 1950s and 1960s. By the early 1970s, however, political and cultural pressures forced the cessation of all projects. This investigation reexamines a potentially promising clinical application of hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety reactive to advanced-stage cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore the safety and efficacy of psilocybin in patients with advanced-stage cancer and reactive anxiety. DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety, with subjects acting as their own control, using a moderate dose (0.2 mg/kg) of psilocybin. SETTING: A clinical research unit within a large public sector academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve adults with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In addition to monitoring safety and subjective experience before and during experimental treatment sessions, follow-up data including results from the Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were collected unblinded for 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: Safe physiological and psychological responses were documented during treatment sessions. There were no clinically significant adverse events with psilocybin. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory trait anxiety subscale demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety at 1 and 3 months after treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory revealed an improvement of mood that reached significance at 6 months; the Profile of Mood States identified mood improvement after treatment with psilocybin that approached but did not reach significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study established the feasibility and safety of administering moderate doses of psilocybin to patients with advanced-stage cancer and anxiety. Some of the data revealed a positive trend toward improved mood and anxiety. These results support the need for more research in this long-neglected field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00302744.
Grob, C. S., et al. (2011). “Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer.” Arch Gen Psychiatry 68(1): 71-78.