Author: Mushroom References

Antitubercular Activity of Mycelium-Associated Ganoderma Lanostanoids.

ABSTRACT: In a continuation of our research into antitubercular lanostane triterpenoids from submerged cultures of Ganoderma species, three strains, Ganoderma orbiforme BCC 22325, Ganoderma sp. BCC 60695, and Ganoderma australe BCC 22314, have been investigated. Fourteen new lanostane triterpenoids, together with 35 known compounds, were isolated. Antitubercular activities of these mycelium-associated Ganoderma lanostanoids against Mycobacterium …

Read More Antitubercular Activity of Mycelium-Associated Ganoderma Lanostanoids.

Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used in Asian countries for hundreds of years to promote health and longevity. The pharmacological functions of which had been classified, including the activation of innate immune responses, suppression of tumour and modulation of cell proliferations. Effective fractions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) had already been reported to …

Read More Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum attenuate microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and modulate microglial phagocytosis and behavioural response.

Effects of comb tooth cap medicinal mushroom, Hericium ramosum (higher basidiomycetes) mycelia on DPPH radical scavenging activity and nerve growth factor synthesis.

ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of and nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis caused by Hericium ramosum mycelia. Wild mushroom fruiting bodies were collected from nature to isolate their mycelia. Pieces of H. ramosum fruiting bodies were plated onto 90-mm Petri dishes with potato dextrose agar medium to isolate …

Read More Effects of comb tooth cap medicinal mushroom, Hericium ramosum (higher basidiomycetes) mycelia on DPPH radical scavenging activity and nerve growth factor synthesis.

Phellinus linteus mycelium alleviates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through autophagic regulation.

ABSTRACT: The incidence of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is rapidly increasing around the world and this disease is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. It is known that regulation of programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagy reduces the impact of myocardial IR injury. In this study, the cardioprotective effects and underlying mechanisms …

Read More Phellinus linteus mycelium alleviates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through autophagic regulation.

Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice increases cetuximab sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancer.

ABSTRACT: Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has recently become a leading cause of death worldwide. Among colon cancers, the v-ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated form is notorious for its non-druggable features. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, has …

Read More Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice increases cetuximab sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancer.

Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. …

Read More Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

Effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia polysaccharide A on tumor neurosis factor-α induced hepatocyte injury with mitochondrial abnormality.

ABSTRACT: Cordyceps sinensis mycelia polysaccharide A (CPS-A), was isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia by 65% alcohol extraction and ion-exchange column chromatography. The molecular weight of CPS-A was 1.2 × 104 Da and the backbone was mainly composed of (1 → 2)-linked β-D-mannopyranose, (1 → 2,4)-linked β-D-mannopyranose and (1 → 4)-linked α-D-glucopyranose with terminal β-D-mannopyranose and α-D-glucopyranose residues. CPS-A played a protective role against TNF-α induced mitochondria injury …

Read More Effects of cultured Cordyceps mycelia polysaccharide A on tumor neurosis factor-α induced hepatocyte injury with mitochondrial abnormality.

Preventive effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium on the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide.

ABSTRACT Thioacetamide (TAA), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (P < 0.05) the lipid accumulation …

Read More Preventive effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium on the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide.

Identification of a novel component leading to anti-tumor activity besides the major ingredient cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris extract.

ABSTRACT: In accordance with our previous study that was carried out to identify novel anti-tumor ingredients, chromatographic separation in combination with an anti-tumor activity assay was used for analysis of Cordyceps militaris extract in this study. Various modes of chromatography including reversed-phase, cation-exchange and anion-exchange were used to separate components of Cordyceps militaris, which showed …

Read More Identification of a novel component leading to anti-tumor activity besides the major ingredient cordycepin in Cordyceps militaris extract.

Lectins from Mycelia of Basidiomycetes.

ABSTRACT: Lectins are proteins of a nonimmunoglobulin nature that are capable of specific recognition of and reversible binding to the carbohydrate moieties of complex carbohydrates, without altering the covalent structure of any of the recognized glycosyl ligands. They have a broad range of biological activities important for the functioning of the cell and the whole …

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The emerging use of mycosterols in food industry along with the current trend of extended use of bioactive phytosterols

ABSTRACT: Background: Consumption of foods enriched with phytosterols (PS) can promote substantial reductions in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For reaching the 2 g/d threshold dose for cholesterol-lowering purposes, the ingestion of PS- enriched foods as well as PS-based nutraceuticals is required. With a growing global functional …

Read More The emerging use of mycosterols in food industry along with the current trend of extended use of bioactive phytosterols

A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-generated halogenating molecules, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), in inflammatory regions are postulated to contribute to disease progression. In this study, we showed that ergothioneine (EGT), derived from an edible mushroom, inhibited MPO activity as well as the formation of 8-bromo-2′-deoxyguanosine in vitro. The HOBr scavenging effect of EGT is …

Read More A mushroom-derived amino acid, ergothioneine, is a potential inhibitor of inflammation-related DNA halogenation.

Purification and fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz.

ABSTRACT: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are the end products of carbohydrate fermentation in the gut, mainly contribute to energy metabolism in mammals. The amount of SCFAs produced during fermentation is an important parameter that characterizes the fermentation capacity of a system. This paper reports on the fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from Fomitopsis …

Read More Purification and fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz.

Preventive effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium on the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide

ABSTRACT: Thioacetamide (TAA), usually used as a fungicide to control the decay of citrus products, itself is not toxic to the liver, but its intermediates are able to increase oxidative stress in livers and further cause fibrosis. Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium (OSM) which contains 10% polysaccharides and 0.25% adenosine decreased (P < 0.05) the lipid accumulation …

Read More Preventive effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis mycelium on the liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide

Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice

ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. …

Read More Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice

Enhancement of repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks in human cells by Ganoderma mushroom polysaccharides

ABSTRACT: The DNA repair ability of a cell is vital to the integrity of its genome and thus to its normal functioning and that of the organism. The repair-enhancing property of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum which belongs to the polyporaceae family was determined by comet assay in human peripheral blood leukocytes. Comet parameters were …

Read More Enhancement of repair of radiation induced DNA strand breaks in human cells by Ganoderma mushroom polysaccharides

Antioxidant, antitumor and immunostimulatory activities of the polypeptide from Pleurotus eryngii mycelium

ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, antitumor and immunological activities of the polypeptide from Pleurotus eryngii mycelium (PEMP). The ability of the polypeptide to stimulate Ana-1 macrophages to englobe neutral red, secrete NO, H2O2, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, increase TLR2 and TLR4 expression levels and Ana-1 cell survival rate were investigated …

Read More Antioxidant, antitumor and immunostimulatory activities of the polypeptide from Pleurotus eryngii mycelium

Acidified Hot Water Extraction of Adenosine, Cordycepin, and Polysaccharides from the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes): Application of an Artificial Neural Network and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

ABSTRACT: The effects of process variables (temperature, time, and pH) on the extraction of adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharides from Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN model resulted in low root mean square errors (0.022, 0.079, 0.018) and high R2 values (0.995, 0.934, 0.997) …

Read More Acidified Hot Water Extraction of Adenosine, Cordycepin, and Polysaccharides from the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes): Application of an Artificial Neural Network and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Conditions and Protein Nutrition Evaluation of Mycelium from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, the mycelium of C. militaris was cultured using liquid fermentation technology and the culture medium components were optimized by the orthogonal test method. Our results showed that the optimal medium combination for the mycelium growth is 3% glucose, 3% peptone, 0.1% MgSO4, …

Read More Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Conditions and Protein Nutrition Evaluation of Mycelium from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

Cordycepin promotes apoptosis by modulating the ERK-JNK signaling pathway via DUSP5 in renal cancer cells

ABSTRACT: Constitutive activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling commonly occurs in tumors. The activation of ERK promotes cell proliferation, whereas that of JNK induces cell apoptosis. However, the apoptotic mechanism of ERK-JNK signaling in cancer is not well understood. Recently, we identified that apoptosis and activation of the JNK signaling …

Read More Cordycepin promotes apoptosis by modulating the ERK-JNK signaling pathway via DUSP5 in renal cancer cells

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on chronic pancreatitis and intestinal microbiota in mice.

ABSTRACT: This study manifested the effects of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLP S3) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) therapy and intestinal microbiota modulation in mice induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). The GLPS3 was prepared from cultured mycelium and markedly alleviated the pancreatitis in mice through decreasing lipase, AMS, IFN-γ and TNF-α level as well as …

Read More Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on chronic pancreatitis and intestinal microbiota in mice.

A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with …

Read More A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

Endogenous cytokinins in medicinal basidiomycetes mycelial biomass

“The greatest total cytokinin quantity was detected in F. officinalis, strain 5004. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004…” ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to study the cytokinins production by medicinal basidial mushrooms. Cytokinins were for the first time identified and quantified in mycelial biomass of six species (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes …

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Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus

“These results implied that the lignin-carbohydrate complexes extracted from I. obliquus might be used as novel natural antioxidants or immunostimulants in functional foods or pharmaceutical candidates.” ABSTRACT: Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus), a folk medicine, has been widely used to treat several human malicious tumors since 16th century. In this study, three homogenous biomolecules (designated …

Read More Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus

Chemical composition and medicinal value of the new ganoderma tsugae var. Jannieae CBS-120304 medicinal higher basidiomycete mushroom

“Mycelium accumulated more than 2-fold more total protein compared with the fruiting body and reached 37% and 16% of dry weight, respectively… In addition, mycelial extracts were tested to inhibit MCF7 breast cancer cells.” ABSTRACT: In this research, the chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activity of the new medicinal mushroom Ganoderma tsugae var. jannieae …

Read More Chemical composition and medicinal value of the new ganoderma tsugae var. Jannieae CBS-120304 medicinal higher basidiomycete mushroom

Identification of potential anticancer activities of novel Ganoderma lucidum extracts using gene expression and pathway network analysis

“The growth inhibition of G. lucidum whiskey and rice wine extracts on the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and DU145, was determined…Using gene expression analysis (real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) and protein analysis (Western blotting), we confirmed the expression of key genes and their associated proteins that were initially identified with Affymetrix gene expression analysis.” …

Read More Identification of potential anticancer activities of novel Ganoderma lucidum extracts using gene expression and pathway network analysis

Ganoderma lucidum combined with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib synergize to reduce inflammatory breast cancer progression

“Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion.” ABSTRACT: The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum combined with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib synergize to reduce inflammatory breast cancer progression

Induction of cross-protective immunity against influenza A virus H5N1 by an intranasal vaccine with extracts of mushroom mycelia

“These results suggest that mycelial extract-adjuvanted vaccines can confer cross-protection against variant H5N1 influenza viruses. The use of extracts of mycelia derived from edible mushrooms is proposed as a new safe and effective mucosal adjuvant for use for nasal vaccination against influenza virus infection.” ABSTRACT: The identification of a safe and effective adjuvant that is …

Read More Induction of cross-protective immunity against influenza A virus H5N1 by an intranasal vaccine with extracts of mushroom mycelia

The chemical composition and anti-proliferative effect of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on breast cancer and cervical cancer cells

“The methanolic extract of G. applanatum elicited dose-dependent cell death on both MDA-MB-231 and HEp-2 cells after 24 h of treatment, with an IC50 value of 84.6 mg/ml and 43.2 mg/ml, respectively. Normal vero cells were able to significantly withstand the treatment.” ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the anti-proliferative potential of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on triple …

Read More The chemical composition and anti-proliferative effect of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on breast cancer and cervical cancer cells

Extracts from Flammulina velutipes inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic fungi to epithelial cells

“The extract from strain AQF-1 (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL) inhibited the adhesion of: S. schenkii in a dose-dependent manner (4.9, 7.5 and 12.7%, respectively) and C. albicans in a dose-independent manner (5.2%).” ABSTRACT: Background: Recently, extracts from natural sources have been tested for their antifungal properties. In this aspect, Flammulina velutipes extracts possess a …

Read More Extracts from Flammulina velutipes inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic fungi to epithelial cells