Antiviral Activity From Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Active Constituents. U.S. Patent Pending

“The present invention offers a unique approach to viral control by utilizing molecular constituents, more specifically discrete active pharmacological ingredients, resident within aqueous-ethanol extracts from the living mycelium of Antrodia, Fomes, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Inonotus, Schizophyllum, Phellinus, Piptoporus, Trametes and other taxa in the Polyporaceae…” EXCERPT: The present invention offers a unique approach to viral control …

Read More Antiviral Activity From Medicinal Mushrooms and Their Active Constituents. U.S. Patent Pending

Potentiation of cell-mediated host defense using fruitbodies and mycelia of medicinal mushrooms

“Despite dramatic differences in beta glucan and arabinoxylane contents between mushrooms and their mycelium-on-grain, immune function is similarly enhanced. These results suggest that immune response is further augmented when multiple mushrooms are used in concert. Synergistic combinations of mushroom species appear to activate collective subfields of receptor sites, eliciting a wide range of positive responses …

Read More Potentiation of cell-mediated host defense using fruitbodies and mycelia of medicinal mushrooms

Compositions Comprising Hypsizygus ulmarius Extract. U.S. Patent 7575764

“Disclosed are topical compositions comprising extracts of Hypsizygus ulmarius in amounts that are effective to influence LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and/or IL-1β mediated adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.”  ABSTRACT: Disclosed are topical compositions comprising extracts of Hypsizygus ulmarius in amounts that are effective to influence LTB4-mediated chemotaxis and/or IL-1β mediated adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The Hypsizygus ulmarius extract …

Read More Compositions Comprising Hypsizygus ulmarius Extract. U.S. Patent 7575764

Antiviral and antibacterial activity from medicinal mushrooms. U.S. Patent 8765138

“Compounds having unique antiviral and antibacterial properties are prepared from medicinal mushroom mycelium, extracts and derivatives…and are useful in preventing and treating viruses including Poxyiridae and Orthopox viruses, flu viruses including bird flu (H5N1), SARS and Hepatitis C (HCV), as well as infections from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureas and Escherichia coli.” ABSTRACT: Compounds having unique …

Read More Antiviral and antibacterial activity from medicinal mushrooms. U.S. Patent 8765138

Medicinal Mushrooms from Old-Growth Forests May Counter Smallpox and Similar Viruses

“In fact, of more than 200,000 samples submitted over several years, only a handful are slated for animal testing each year.  In the past year, approximately ten samples showed activity warranting approval for animal testing; of these, two are from strains of Agarikon discovered by Stamets. Moreover, Mr. Stamets’ samples are the only natural products …

Read More Medicinal Mushrooms from Old-Growth Forests May Counter Smallpox and Similar Viruses

Protein-Bound Polysaccharides. U.S. Patent 4271151

“Disclosed in this invention are protein-bound polysaccharides having antitumor activities. The polysaccharides have a molecular weight within a specified range and present a pattern of color reaction peculiar to the saccharides as well a color of pattern reaction characteristic of amino acids and peptide bonds….The protein bound polysaccharides can be obtained by the extraction of …

Read More Protein-Bound Polysaccharides. U.S. Patent 4271151

Antineoplastic effect of mushrooms: a review

“In Japan, 3 polysaccharide carcinostatics are available. They are produced from 3 different mushrooms (fruit body of Lentinus edodes, mycelium of Coriolus versicolor, and a substance produced in medium for Schizophyllum commune)” ABSTRACT: Global awareness of cancer is one of the largest causes of death in people of various ages and racial backgrounds has led …

Read More Antineoplastic effect of mushrooms: a review

Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

“The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and …

Read More Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

“PSK activated human NK cells to produce IFN-γ and to lyse K562 target cells. PSK also enhanced trastuzumab-mediated ADCC against SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Both direct and IL-12-dependent indirect effects seem to be involved in the effect of PSK on NK cells.” [from mycelium] ABSTRACT: The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) …

Read More TLR2 agonist PSK activates human NK cells and enhances the anti-tumor effect of HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody therapy

The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells

“Medicinal mushroom polysaccharides such as Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) have been commonly hypothesized to suppress tumour cells proliferation through immune effects. To verify this hypothesis through investigating comprehensive miRNA expression in polysaccharide treated cancer cells, an anticancer mycelia GLP was employed to disclose miRNA differential expression of human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2), by using a miRNA …

Read More The polysaccharides from fermented Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induced miRNAs regulation in suppressed HepG2 cells

Simultaneous increase of mycelia biomass and intracellular polysaccharide from Fomes fomentarius and its biological function of gastric cancer intervention

“Chen et al. (2011) studied that ethanol extract of mycelial biomass and intracellular polysaccharide of Fomes fomentarius play crucial roles in gastric cancer intervention. Both the extracts exhibit anti-proliferative effect on human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and MKN-45 in a dose-dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: In this work, the effects of submerged culture conditions and nutritional …

Read More Simultaneous increase of mycelia biomass and intracellular polysaccharide from Fomes fomentarius and its biological function of gastric cancer intervention

Progress of Research on Inonotus obliquus

“Antiplatelet Aggregative Action: It was reported that water and ethanol extracts from mycelium or fruiting bodies in 55 kinds of mushrooms were tested for platelet aggregation inhibitory activities. The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of Inonotus obliquus ASI 74006 were extracted with ethanol at 80 ℃ for 12 h. The …

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Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells

“Ganoderic acid T (GA-T), which is a lanostane triterpenoid purified from methanol extract of G. lucidum mycelia, was found to exert cytotoxicity on various human carcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, while it was less toxic to normal human cell lines.” ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb containing many bioactive …

Read More Ganoderic acid T from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia induces mitochondria mediated apoptosis in lung cancer cells

Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest

“In this study, we report that a triterpene-enriched fraction from mycelia of G. lucidum inhibits growth of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells while exerts little effect on a normal human liver cell line.”  ABSTRACT: The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been used in the Orient for the prevention and treatment of various diseases including …

Read More Triterpene-enriched extracts from Ganoderma lucidum inhibit growth of hepatoma cells via suppressing protein kinase C, activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and G2-phase cell cycle arrest

Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-κB

“The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of dried mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum produced by submerged cultivation on the enhancement of innate immune response. We found that Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (0.2–1.6 mg/ml) stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 production after 8 h treatment in human whole blood.”  ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom in …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-κB

Orally administered mycelia culture of Phellinus linteus exhibits antitumor effects in hepatoma cell-bearing mice

“The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of a mycelial culture from Phellinus linteus PL-7 (MCPL-7) and to elucidate its potential mechanism in vivo. MCPL-7 administration induced a significant reduction in tumor size and was associated with a significant increase in T cell numbers; IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion; NK cell …

Read More Orally administered mycelia culture of Phellinus linteus exhibits antitumor effects in hepatoma cell-bearing mice

Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy

“These findings provide evidences that GL-M [Ganoderma lucidum mycelium] has immunomodulating effects on human immune cells and therefore can be used as a natural adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy with DCs.”  ABSTRACT: Objectives: Ganoderma lucidum (GL) is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in the oriental community, with more than 30% of pediatric cancer …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and spore extracts as natural adjuvants for immunotherapy

In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

“CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity.”  ABSTRACT: AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from …

Read More In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury

Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells

“In the present study, the effects of ethanol extracts of G. lucidum (EGL) on the growth of an AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated. We found that EGL treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent significant decrease in the viability of AGS cells. This decreased viability was caused by apoptotic cell death, with …

Read More Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells

Effect of Polysaccharides and 70% Ethanol Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms on Growth of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells

“A 70% ethanol extract of mushrooms markedly inhibited the cell growth of LNCaP and PC-3 cells, and the effect was greater than the above polysaccharides. These results showed that the polysaccharides and 70% ethanol extract of mushrooms have growth-inhibitory activity in LNCaP and PC-3 cells.” ABSTRACT: To find anticancer compounds in medicinal mushrooms (MM), we …

Read More Effect of Polysaccharides and 70% Ethanol Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms on Growth of Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP and PC-3 Cells

Cancer prevention and treatment by Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties

“Initial extraction of triterpenoids from Ganoderma is usually by organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, and chloroform, and the extracts can be further purified according to different methods, depending on whether they contain acidic or nonacidic triterpenoids.”  ABSTRACT: Ganoderma, highly ranked in Oriental traditional medicine, has been used as a remedy for many types of …

Read More Cancer prevention and treatment by Ganoderma, a mushroom with medicinal properties

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus

“Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs).” ABSTRACT: The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and …

Read More Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus

Recent research and development of Antrodia cinnamomea

“The ethanolic extract of AC solid state culture (ACSSC) exhibited a neuroprotective activity against the neurotoxicity of Aβ25–35 peptide on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line (Chang et al., 2012). The total polyphenolics, total flavonoids, and total triterpenoids in ACSSC reached 133 ± 7, 114 ± 6, and 175 ± 26 mg/g respectively. The HPLC chromatogram …

Read More Recent research and development of Antrodia cinnamomea

Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

“Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits the proliferation of breast and colon cancer cells. In order to evaluate the effect of edible mushrooms on the growth of breast and colon cancer cells, we prepared methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. As seen in Fig. 2A, P. ostreatus suppressed the …

Read More Pleurotus ostreatus inhibits proliferation of human breast and colon cancer cells through p53-dependent as well as p53-independent pathway

Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

“Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB) [mycelium], grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCI4)”  ABSTRACT: Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB), grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Peroxidation products in the liver were decreased to 10% by EPB. Catalase and …

Read More Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer heterogeneity in Ganoderma species.

“The clone sequences were analyzed along with other sequences from Ganoderma retrieved from GenBank. The results show that sequence variation within strains varies considerably with species and the heterogeneity may occur in the 3 parts (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ITS region.”  ABSTRACT: Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer (ITS) heterogeneity is first reported from Ganoderma, …

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Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different Ganoderma lucidum extracts

“The antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts (40μg/ml) of Ganoderma lucidum was tested against six species of bacteria…Acetone extract exhibited maximum antibacterial activity…”  ABSTRACT: Bioproducts of Mushroom have multi beneficial effects for human welfare. Medicinal mushrooms are widely used as traditional medicinal ingredients for the treatment of various diseases and related health problems. Most of …

Read More Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different Ganoderma lucidum extracts

Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract for Patients Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study

“Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (L.E.M.) is extensively utilized as an herbal medicine… [and] improves the QOL and immune function of patients undergoing chemotherapy.” ABSTRACT: Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (L.E.M.) is extensively utilized as an herbal medicine. However, its safety and effectiveness have not yet been scientifically verified. In this study, we investigated its safety and …

Read More Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Lentinula edodes Mycelia Extract for Patients Undergoing Cancer Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study

Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma

“High-dose PSP [Polysaccharopeptide…the bioactive agent from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor] significantly delayed the progression of metastases and afforded the longest survival times reported in canine hemangiosarcoma”  ABSTRACT: The 2008 World Health Organization World Cancer Report describes global cancer incidence soaring with many patients living in countries that lack resources for cancer control. Alternative treatment strategies …

Read More Single Agent Polysaccharopeptide Delays Metastases and Improves Survival in Naturally Occurring Hemangiosarcoma