Acidified Hot Water Extraction of Adenosine, Cordycepin, and Polysaccharides from the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes): Application of an Artificial Neural Network and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

ABSTRACT: The effects of process variables (temperature, time, and pH) on the extraction of adenosine, cordycepin, and polysaccharides from Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN model resulted in low root mean square errors (0.022, 0.079, 0.018) and high R2 values (0.995, 0.934, 0.997) …

Read More Acidified Hot Water Extraction of Adenosine, Cordycepin, and Polysaccharides from the Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis CS1197 (Ascomycetes): Application of an Artificial Neural Network and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Conditions and Protein Nutrition Evaluation of Mycelium from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, the mycelium of C. militaris was cultured using liquid fermentation technology and the culture medium components were optimized by the orthogonal test method. Our results showed that the optimal medium combination for the mycelium growth is 3% glucose, 3% peptone, 0.1% MgSO4, …

Read More Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Conditions and Protein Nutrition Evaluation of Mycelium from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes)

Cordycepin promotes apoptosis by modulating the ERK-JNK signaling pathway via DUSP5 in renal cancer cells

ABSTRACT: Constitutive activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling commonly occurs in tumors. The activation of ERK promotes cell proliferation, whereas that of JNK induces cell apoptosis. However, the apoptotic mechanism of ERK-JNK signaling in cancer is not well understood. Recently, we identified that apoptosis and activation of the JNK signaling …

Read More Cordycepin promotes apoptosis by modulating the ERK-JNK signaling pathway via DUSP5 in renal cancer cells

Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on chronic pancreatitis and intestinal microbiota in mice.

ABSTRACT: This study manifested the effects of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLP S3) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) therapy and intestinal microbiota modulation in mice induced by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). The GLPS3 was prepared from cultured mycelium and markedly alleviated the pancreatitis in mice through decreasing lipase, AMS, IFN-γ and TNF-α level as well as …

Read More Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on chronic pancreatitis and intestinal microbiota in mice.

A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with …

Read More A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

Endogenous cytokinins in medicinal basidiomycetes mycelial biomass

“The greatest total cytokinin quantity was detected in F. officinalis, strain 5004. S. crispa, strain 314, and F. officinalis, strain 5004…” ABSTRACT: The aim of the research was to study the cytokinins production by medicinal basidial mushrooms. Cytokinins were for the first time identified and quantified in mycelial biomass of six species (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes …

Read More Endogenous cytokinins in medicinal basidiomycetes mycelial biomass

Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus

“These results implied that the lignin-carbohydrate complexes extracted from I. obliquus might be used as novel natural antioxidants or immunostimulants in functional foods or pharmaceutical candidates.” ABSTRACT: Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus), a folk medicine, has been widely used to treat several human malicious tumors since 16th century. In this study, three homogenous biomolecules (designated …

Read More Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus

Chemical composition and medicinal value of the new ganoderma tsugae var. Jannieae CBS-120304 medicinal higher basidiomycete mushroom

“Mycelium accumulated more than 2-fold more total protein compared with the fruiting body and reached 37% and 16% of dry weight, respectively… In addition, mycelial extracts were tested to inhibit MCF7 breast cancer cells.” ABSTRACT: In this research, the chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activity of the new medicinal mushroom Ganoderma tsugae var. jannieae …

Read More Chemical composition and medicinal value of the new ganoderma tsugae var. Jannieae CBS-120304 medicinal higher basidiomycete mushroom

Identification of potential anticancer activities of novel Ganoderma lucidum extracts using gene expression and pathway network analysis

“The growth inhibition of G. lucidum whiskey and rice wine extracts on the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and DU145, was determined…Using gene expression analysis (real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) and protein analysis (Western blotting), we confirmed the expression of key genes and their associated proteins that were initially identified with Affymetrix gene expression analysis.” …

Read More Identification of potential anticancer activities of novel Ganoderma lucidum extracts using gene expression and pathway network analysis

Ganoderma lucidum combined with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib synergize to reduce inflammatory breast cancer progression

“Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion.” ABSTRACT: The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum combined with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib synergize to reduce inflammatory breast cancer progression

Induction of cross-protective immunity against influenza A virus H5N1 by an intranasal vaccine with extracts of mushroom mycelia

“These results suggest that mycelial extract-adjuvanted vaccines can confer cross-protection against variant H5N1 influenza viruses. The use of extracts of mycelia derived from edible mushrooms is proposed as a new safe and effective mucosal adjuvant for use for nasal vaccination against influenza virus infection.” ABSTRACT: The identification of a safe and effective adjuvant that is …

Read More Induction of cross-protective immunity against influenza A virus H5N1 by an intranasal vaccine with extracts of mushroom mycelia

The chemical composition and anti-proliferative effect of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on breast cancer and cervical cancer cells

“The methanolic extract of G. applanatum elicited dose-dependent cell death on both MDA-MB-231 and HEp-2 cells after 24 h of treatment, with an IC50 value of 84.6 mg/ml and 43.2 mg/ml, respectively. Normal vero cells were able to significantly withstand the treatment.” ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the anti-proliferative potential of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on triple …

Read More The chemical composition and anti-proliferative effect of Oman’s Ganoderma applanatum on breast cancer and cervical cancer cells

Extracts from Flammulina velutipes inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic fungi to epithelial cells

“The extract from strain AQF-1 (50, 100 and 150 μg/mL) inhibited the adhesion of: S. schenkii in a dose-dependent manner (4.9, 7.5 and 12.7%, respectively) and C. albicans in a dose-independent manner (5.2%).” ABSTRACT: Background: Recently, extracts from natural sources have been tested for their antifungal properties. In this aspect, Flammulina velutipes extracts possess a …

Read More Extracts from Flammulina velutipes inhibit the adhesion of pathogenic fungi to epithelial cells

Mycelial extract of phellinus linteus induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells and elevation of nitric oxide in raw 264.7 macrophage cells

“Treatment of PLME to A549 cells resulted in the growth inhibition, morphological change and induction of apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay. We found that PLME stimulated a dose-dependent increase in NO production.” ABSTRACT: In the present study, in order to investigate the anti-proliferative phenomenon of PLME, the effects …

Read More Mycelial extract of phellinus linteus induces cell death in A549 lung cancer cells and elevation of nitric oxide in raw 264.7 macrophage cells

Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

“Our experiments indicated that POP reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia levels, improves insulin resistance, and increases glycogen storage by activating GSK3 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation.” ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of total polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus on type 2 diabetes. Rats were administered with high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to induce …

Read More Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71

“GFP1 was tested for its anti-EV71 activity in cultured cells, which showed that EV71 viral replication was blocked and viral VP1 protein expression and genomic RNA synthesis were suppressed.” ABSTRACT: A novel heteropolysaccharide from Grifola frondosa mycelia was extracted and purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and …

Read More Structural characterization and antiviral activity of a novel heteropolysaccharide isolated from grifola frondosa against enterovirus 71

Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of lentinus tigrinus and lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture

“Results revealed that L. tigrinus efficiently grew on rice bran decoction which significantly recorded the highest yield of mycelia (11.53 g), volume loss of the medium (24.33 ml), radical scavenging activity (18.94%) and total phenolics (26.59 mg AAE/g sample).” ABSTRACT: With the increasing demand of functional foods with antioxidant properties, it is necessary to establish …

Read More Mycelial biomass production and antioxidant activity of lentinus tigrinus and lentinus sajor-caju in indigenous liquid culture

Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

“Our experiments indicated that POP reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia levels, improves insulin resistance, and increases glycogen storage by activating GSK3 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation.” ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of total polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus on type 2 diabetes. Rats were administered with high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. The rats were …

Read More Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells (caco-2)

“Both fractions 2 and 3 inhibited Caco-2 cells in a dose dependent manner.” ABSTRACT: An ethanolic extraction of Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal mushroom, was fractioned into four extracts by flash chromatography. Only fraction 2 and 3 contained triterpenoids. Fraction 2 was less polar and contained ganoderic acids _, A, B, C2, C6, D, G, H, …

Read More Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoid extract induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells (caco-2)

Hispolon from Phellinus linteus possesses mediate caspases activation and induces human nasopharyngeal carcinomas cells apoptosis through ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway

“The results showed that hispolon significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HONE-1 and NP-039 cell lines. Furthermore, hispolon induced apoptosis through caspases-3, -8, and -9 activations and PARP cleavage in dose- and time-dependent manner in HONE-1 and NP-039 cells. Moreover, hispolon also showed that increase phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 in dose- and time-dependent …

Read More Hispolon from Phellinus linteus possesses mediate caspases activation and induces human nasopharyngeal carcinomas cells apoptosis through ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway

Structural characterization and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide produced by Hirsutella sinensis.

“The tumor inhibition ratio on H22 cell was 79.04% at 100μg/mL of HSP-III.” ABSTRACT: HSP-III, a novel homogeneous polysaccharide with 513.89kDa molecular weight, was fractionated from submerged cultures of Hirsutella sinensis by Sevag and chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The total sugar content of HSP-III was amounted to 89.87%. Based on the results of high …

Read More Structural characterization and anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide produced by Hirsutella sinensis.

Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

“G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.” ABSTRACT: Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained …

Read More Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of hericium caput-medusae (bull.:Fr.) Pers. On performance, gut microflora, and cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens.

“The serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (Po0.001) linearly and quadratically, while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (linear and quadratic, Po0.001) with increasing dietary HFCP levels.” ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFCP) on …

Read More Effects of dietary polysaccharides from the submerged fermentation concentrate of hericium caput-medusae (bull.:Fr.) Pers. On performance, gut microflora, and cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens.

Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill

“Compared with air drying and vacuum drying methods, freeze drying method resulted to ABMP [Agaricus blaze​i Murrill ​​polysaccharides] with higher neutral sugar, polysaccharide yield, uronic acid content, and stronger antioxidant abilities of hydroxyl radical, DPPH radical, radical scavenging and Fe2+-chelating.” Wu, S., Li, F., Jia, S., Ren, H., Gong, G., Wang, Y., & Lv, Z. …

Read More Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of polysaccharides obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill

Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor [Tv] in women with breast cancer

“One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the overall difference between dosage groups over the treatment period (2–4–6 weeks). It showed the statistically significant increase in the CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. P = 0.0003…. In the dose escalation study, Tv resulted in an earlier recovery of lymphocyte counts” after radiation therapy, nearly doubling, with a significance …

Read More Phase 1 clinical trial of Trametes versicolor [Tv] in women with breast cancer

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

“Chaga supplementation resulted in a 54.9% (p < 0.001) reduction of H2O2 induced DNA damage within the patient group and 34.9% (p < 0.001) within the control group. Lymphocytes from Crohn’s disease (CD) patients had a greater basic DNA damage than Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients (p < 0.001). Conclusively, Chaga extract reduces oxidative stress in …

Read More Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities

“Seven compounds (3, 9, 10, 12, 18-20) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A549, HT29, Hela or L1210 tumor cell lines.” ABSTRACT: Three new lanostane-type triterpenes, inonotusanes A-C (1-3), and a new naturally occurring one, 3β-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinorlanosta-8,22E-dien-24-oic acid (4), together with sixteen known triterpenoids (5-20), including 13 lanostane derivatives, 2 lupanes and 1 oleanane-type triterpene were isolated from …

Read More Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities

Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes

“L. edodes reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manners in carcinoma cells but had no effect in non-tumorigenic cells.” ABSTRACT: The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom mycelia, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells …

Read More Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes

Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

“The present study describes the isolation of two new naturally occurring metabolites from an anti-TB mycelial culture extract (EtOH) of F. officinalis…” ABSTRACT: An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4- phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The …

Read More Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis